Essay on Abortion 2020
Abortion is the removing of a fetus from inside a woman's body by a surgical or medical procedure. The termination could be done by dilation and evacuation of the fetus (surgical) or by taking an abortion pill (medical method). The state of Hawaii was the first state to legalize abortion. Abortion is now legal in all US states. In the past, women considered abortion as their last option to resolve unwanted pregnancies and a pregnancy that resulted from violence like rape. But now it seems that abortion is their first option. In the United States, abortion is one of the debatable issues where citizens are divided into two sides of the issue. The Pro-life people who oppose abortion and believe that the fetus has the right to live, and the Pro-choice people who opposed the beliefs of Pro-life people and support the rights of a woman's choice to terminate the fetus. Pro-choice people can make this choice because they believe that the fetus within a woman's body is a just part of hers and she can decide what she does to it; however, abortion should be banned because the fetus is an innocent life and should not pay the consequences for the choices of either parent.
Pro-choice people believe that in the 14th Amendment the word "person" is defined as a "walking person" and doesn't include the unborn baby. A "person" as described in the constitution is guaranteed to have equal protection and rights to decide what to do with one's own body. So, it means, according to pro-choice people, that unborn babies don't have the right to live and are not protected by the law (Craddock 540). The Roe v. Wade law gave the right to all women to decide whether to keep the pregnancy or to terminate the fetus anytime in the process of pregnancy as part of their rights. The law was implemented to also support the rights of the mother and to protect her health during pregnancy. If there are health issues during the pregnancy, the health of the mother is more prioritized than the unborn baby because the life of the mother is more valuable than the fetus (Medoff 158-159).
However, the Pro-life supporters strongly contended that the fetus is considered a person. The fetus inside the womb of the mother is a living organism. They are considered a living organism because they undergo the process of cellular organization, growth and development, reproduction, metabolism, heredity, response to stimuli, and adaption through evolution which are the criteria of a living organism (Harrison et al. 95). Because of this, the 14th Amendment equal protection and rights should extend to the life of the fetus inside the woman's body (Craddock 547). The right to life organization used vivid pictures of the fetus' body parts that are inside the lab jars to show that a fetus is a person too, with body parts like a "walking person" (Millar 504). According to the dictionaries of common and legal usage, the term "person" is also called a human being (Craddock 549). The original public meaning of the word person during the adaptation of 14th Amendment extends to all human beings and not just the born human (Craddock 552).
Fetus is distinct from the woman's body. They are connected by the fact that the baby is in the womb, but in the eyes of the law, they are not connected. If someone stabs a pregnant woman and hurts the fetus, the law protects not just the mother but also the fetus. The House of Lords with the support of the Court of Appeal believes that the fetus and the mother are not one body. According to Lord Mustill, the fetus counts as more than a mother's body because the fetus is a unique organism (Windsor 406). In Missouri, there was a case where a woman who positively used illegal drugs like cocaine while pregnant and smoked marijuana was convicted and charged with criminal child endangerment based on the law that protects the unborn fetus (Minkoff and Paltrow 27). If there are laws that protect the unborn child when a mother gets hurt or is negligent, then why isn't the life of unborn child protected even if the mother is in danger during pregnancy. The fetus should be protected and not aborted.
The fetus can feel pain during an abortion. It is hard to imagine anyone hurting a baby, yet people hurt an innocent fetus that can't speak or protect herself or himself. Based on the Unborn Child Pain Awareness Act, it is obligatory to all physicians to inform the woman in written and verbal the pain that the fetus would feel during an abortion and let them choose to use anesthesia or directly administered pain drugs to the fetus. (Minkoff and Paltrow 26 -27). The researchers recognize the pain of the fetus by studying the fetus' facial expression. They notice that the 24 to 36 weeks old fetus showed more facial expression that resembles pain and that they translated it as scowling or frowning (Reissland et al. 1). Lee at al. discovered that premature infants had neonatal facial movements observed during invasive but absent during non-invasive procedures. Those neonatal facial movements are found at 28 to 30 weeks old fetus. Based on that, it makes sense that the fetus can feel pain. Imagine the pain a child would feel if someone were trying to break him or her into pieces.
Abortion is not considered a women's healthcare. Pregnancy is not a disease that needs to be cured. Abortion is not a surgical procedure to treat diseases but instead, it kills the unborn baby. There are 85% percent of ob-gyn who do not perform abortions, based on a representative national survey (Harrison et al. 95-97). The abortion providers are the ones who perform abortions on women. Abortionists don't provide any medical care for women, unlike physicians and ob-gyn who treat and diagnose diseases. Obstetricians took the Hippocratic oath to save the mother and the fetus' lives with their best ability in all cases (Harrison et al. 95-97). So, that means that Obstetricians should not be allowed to perform abortions because they are only saving one life. If the pregnant woman experiences health problems, induce labor and C-section by her physician is the better option rather than abortion. These procedures are considered healthcare and save both lives. Both mother and unborn baby could receive the same medical attention or care they need to survive, unlike abortion which only guarantees the life of the woman (Harrison et al. 96).
Abortion doesn't treat diseases but only affects women's health. Abortion can cause breast cancer, high risk of premature birth in the next pregnancy, uterine infections, and scars. The fetus produces 85 % mature hormones of the mother's breast tissue that turn into milk-producing breast lobules. If the baby is terminated, the mother's breast tissue won't mature and could turn into cancer-susceptible breast tissue, which can cause breast cancer (Lanfranchi 135). At the worst, breast cancer can kill women and more likely they will experience mastectomy surgery. The mother that undergoes abortion can also experience a premature birth for her next pregnancy. The cervix serves as the opening of the uterus and its muscle is used to hold and protect the fetus and the placenta inside the womb. If it is damaged and loosened up, the lining of the cervix gets weaker and can't support the baby anymore. It will then result in the premature birth of the baby. The premature baby could have a disorder called cerebral palsy (Lanfranchi 141). Some women who consider abortion often don't think about the harm that it brings to their future children.
Abortion not only affects women's physical health, but it also affects women's mental health. After the abortion, many mothers will experience unending sorrow and grieving their unborn babies' death. (Millar 501). Mothers also feel regret, sadness, and trauma that are classified as egocentric grief. It must be impossible for a woman to feel no remorse after the abortion of her own child because at the moment she discovers that she is pregnant, she envisions holding a baby in her arms and that vision won't ever go away. That is another reason why abortion should not be done. The mother can carry the fetus throughout the pregnancy and have the baby adopted if she doesn't want to keep the baby. That way, by the time she regrets her decision, she can still see her baby. There are many women around the world who cannot conceive a baby and are willing to adopt a baby. The US legislation implemented restrictions to access abortion after anti-abortionists successfully introduced the egocentric grief (Millar 503). Women who have had abortions also experienced post-abortion syndrome. According to Dr. Eric Seal, post-abortion syndrome or chronic-post syndrome is a developing and prolonged syndrome that can cause lifelong hostility, depression, and changes of personality, considering that the mother had made a sensitive decision to abort the baby (Millar 506). The pregnant woman becomes a mother the moment she conceives. In the "Parenthood Argument," Don Marquis talks about the immorality of abortion. He created this syllogism to argue that the mother has neglected her duties when she has an abortion.
All mammals have mothers. A fetus is a mammal. Therefore, a fetus has a mother. Only the pregnant woman qualifies to be the mother of the fetus within her. All mothers are parents. All parents have serious, special duties of care to their children. Therefore, all pregnant women have serious, special duties of care to their children. Fetuses are children. Therefore, all pregnant women have serious, special duties of care to their fetuses. (Simkulet 13)
Mothers have obligations to their children to supply them with nutrients and not to starve them to death. Abortion opposes these obligations.
Fetus is not responsible for the consequences of either parent's action. It is common knowledge that if two partners have sexual intercourse, the woman would possibly conceive a baby. So, why does the fetus have to suffer and not the mother? There are lots of contraceptive methods to prevent pregnancy, such as the male and female condom that helps prevent unwanted pregnancy (Tostes de Souza et al. 234-235) and intrauterine device (IUD). Abortion should not be considered a method of contraception.
Abortion is depriving the life of an innocent fetus. It is done by forcefully removing the fetus from inside the mother's womb by using medication or surgical procedures. The fetus is not just the part of a woman's body, but it is a living organism distinct from the woman's body. Obstetricians took an oath to save the lives of the mother and the fetus and not to kill either of these lives. This procedure doesn't improve the health of the woman, but it can only worsen their physical and mental health including their future kids. The fetus can feel pain. A pregnant woman is considered a mother that has responsibilities to nourish and protect her child from harm. The fetus didn't have the choice of conception, which is the result of the actions done by both partners; therefore, the fetus should not be punished.
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